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Prenatal testosterone (T) excess in sheep results in a wide array of reproductive neuroendocrine deficits and alterations in motivated behavior. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a critical role in reward and motivated behaviors and is hypothesised to be targeted by prenatal T. Here we report a sex difference in the number VTA dopamine cells in the adult sheep, with higher numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (-ir) cells in males than females. Moreover, prenatal exposure to excess T during either gestational days 30-90 or 60-90 resulted in increased numbers of VTA TH-ir cells in adult ewes compared to control females. Stereological analysis confirmed significantly greater numbers of neurons in the VTA of males and prenatal T-treated ewes, which was primarily accounted for by greater numbers of TH-ir cells. In addition, immunoreactivity for TH in the cells was denser in males and prenatal T-treated females, suggesting that sex differences and prenatal exposure to excess T affects both numbers of cells expressing TH and the protein levels within dopamine cells. Sex differences were also noted in numbers of TH-ir cells in the substantia nigra, with more cells in males than females. However, prenatal exposure to excess T did not affect numbers of TH-ir cells in the substantia nigra, suggesting that this sex difference is organised independently of prenatal actions of T. Together, these results demonstrate sex differences in the sheep VTA dopamine system which are mimicked by prenatal treatment with excess T. testosterone.

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Hypoandrogenism in women with low functional ovarian reserve (LFOR, defined as an abnormally low number of small growing follicles) adversely affects fertility. The androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is increasingly used to supplement treatment protocols in women with LFOR undergoing in vitro fertilization. Due to differences in androgen metabolism, however, responses to DHEA supplementation vary between patients. In addition to overall declines in steroidogenic capacity with advancing age, genetic factors, which result in altered expression or enzymatic function of key steroidogenic proteins or their upstream regulators, might further exacerbate variations in the conversion of DHEA to testosterone. In this Review, we discuss in vitro studies and animal models of polymorphisms and gene mutations that affect the conversion of DHEA to testosterone and attempt to elucidate how these variations affect female hormone profiles. We also discuss treatment options that modulate levels of testosterone by targeting the expression of steroidogenic genes. Common variants in genes encoding DHEA sulphotransferase, aromatase, steroid 5α-reductase, androgen receptor, sex-hormone binding globulin, fragile X mental retardation protein and breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein have been implicated in androgen metabolism and, therefore, can affect levels of androgens in women. Short of screening for all potential genetic variants, hormonal assessments of patients with low testosterone levels after DHEA supplementation facilitate identification of underlying genetic defects. The genetic predisposition of patients can then be used to design individualized fertility treatments. testosterone.

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Morphine and kisspeptin systems may interact with each other to control the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. testosterone.

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Sex differences in attentional selection of global and local components of stimuli have been hypothesized to underlie sex differences in cognitive strategy choice. A Navon figure paradigm was employed in 32 men, 41 naturally cycling women (22 follicular, 19 luteal) and 19 users of oral contraceptives (OCs) containing first to third generation progestins in their active pill phase. Participants were first asked to detect targets at any level (divided attention) and then at either the global or the local level only (focused attention). In the focused attention condition, luteal women showed reduced global advantage (i.e. faster responses to global vs. local targets) compared to men, follicular women and OC users. Accordingly, global advantage during the focused attention condition related significantly positively to testosterone levels and significantly negatively to progesterone, but not estradiol levels in a multiple regression model including all naturally cycling women and men. Interference (i.e. delayed rejection of stimuli displaying targets at the non-attended level) was significantly enhanced in OC users as compared to naturally cycling women and related positively to testosterone levels in all naturally cycling women and men. Remarkably, when analyzed separately for each group, the relationship of testosterone to global advantage and interference was reversed in women during their luteal phase as opposed to men and women during their follicular phase. As global processing is lateralized to the right and local processing to the left hemisphere, we speculate that these effects stem from a testosterone-mediated enhancement of right-hemisphere functioning as well as progesterone-mediated inter-hemispheric decoupling. testosterone.

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73 male subjects were enrolled; 26 had moderate/severe OSA. ROC curve analysis showed HbA1c, CRP, EPO, IL-6, and Uric Acid (AUCs: 0.76, 0.73, 0.65, 0.65, 0.61) were superior to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (AUC: 0.52). Concurrent elevation of HbA1c and CRP provide even greater predictive power. A combination of elevated HbA1c, CRP, and EPO provided 0.08 increase in AUC (0.84 [0.75 – 0.94]) over individual markers (p<0.05), with high sensitivity (85%), and specificity (79%) for moderate/severe OSA. testosterone.

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